Ventajas y limitaciones del uso del torniquete en ortopedia y traumatología

Yaima Rizo Fiallo, Antonio Ismael Aparicio Morales, Ragnar Calzado Calderón, Osana Vilma Rondón García

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Resumen

Introducción: El torniquete es ampliamente usado en la cirugía ortopédica y traumatológica con el objetivo de disminuir las pérdidas sanguíneas intraoperatorias y mejorar la visibilidad de las estructuras anatómicas, aunque su empleo es controversial.

Objetivo: Describir las aplicaciones prácticas y las limitaciones del torniquete en la cirugía ortopédica y traumatológica.

Método: Se realizó una revisión no sistemática de la literatura en bases de datos científicas como Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, OVID y el buscador académico Google Scholar, en el mes de septiembre de 2020.

Conclusiones: Aunque el torniquete es ampliamente utilizado durante la cirugía ortopédica y traumatológica, debido a que contribuye a reducir las pérdidas hemáticas intraoperatorias, se ha demostrado su efecto en el aumento de las pérdidas sanguíneas totales, así como su asociación con  dolor perioperatorio, pérdida de la fuerza muscular del miembro, lesiones de nervios periféricos, trombosis venosa profunda y daño a órganos a distancia por el fenómeno de isquemia-reperfusión.

Palabras clave

torniquete; cirugía ortopédica; traumatología; lesión por isquemia-reperfusión.a, lesión por isquemia-reperfusión

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